The environment provides people with signs and signals (tohu) from the spirit world. Omens are seen in natural phenomena, such as

lightning, the presence of certain birds, fish, or animals, the condition of forests, or particular plants. Every kinship group (hapu)

identifies particular locations as the dwelling place of guardian spirit beings, called kaitiaki which they invoke (karakia) for guidance and

protection. Each community has its own named kaitiaki. (Jenkins et al 2016)